邹城市汽车网
网球

Lessonsfromahugeretractionsdatabase|NatureBriefing

作者: 来源: 时间:2019-07-05

Hello Nature readers,

Today we hear how EU laws on gene-edited crops are squeezing research, find out what a new retractions database reveals, and learn about the growing ambitions of citizen science. 

 

A research project into banana disease is said to be affected by Europe’s new gene-editing rules. (Avalon)

EU rule on gene-edited crops chills science 

Three months after the European Union’s top court gave gene-edited crops the same stringent legal status as genetically modified (GM) organisms, researchers are starting to feel the pinch. “We see a chilling effect on plans for performing research with CRISPR-edited plants in the field,” says René Custers, at Belgium’s VIB life-sciences research institute. And a Brazilian firm says that it has put gene-editing projects focused on soya beans on hold, because its major market is in Europe. On 24 October, 170 European scientists released a paper urging a change in the law.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/latest-news

“Renaissance” for Indian research agency 

The incoming head of India’s Council of Scientific and Industrial Research — one of the country’s largest research organizations — wants his new agency to help solve India’s most intractable problems; malnutrition, disease epidemics and access to clean water. But Shekhar Mande will first have to confront the council’s own issues: stretched funding and an entrenched bureaucracy.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/latest-news

Clues to Mars methane mystery 

New calculations could help to explain why NASA’s Curiosity rover detects peaks of methane gas in the Martian atmosphere during the planet"s northern summer. As winter gives way to spring, the idea goes, the Sun’s heat begins to warm the soil — allowing methane to percolate up from the ground and into the atmosphere. The methane’s ultimate source, whether from geological processes or some form of life,  is still a mystery.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/latest-news

 

Rare DNA sequences reveal early humans" history 

Humankind’s early history in Africa is coming into sharper focus with a new study of 180 genomes from a dozen ethnic groups on the continent, some of which have never before been analysed. These preliminary, as yet-unpublished, results suggest that more than 40,000 years ago, two of the groups — the San and the Baka Pygmy — were roughly twice the size of other ethnic groups present at the time, and that the San and Baka overlapped in central-eastern or southern Africa.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/latest-news

Salmon hurling in Alaska 

Here’s one study wrapped in another: a team surveying salmon carcasses in a small stream in southwestern Alaska — to study bears’ diet — have, for decades, been throwing the dead fish away to avoid double-counting them. Since 1997, the salmon-counters have tossed the fish onto the river’s left-hand bank. They have now found that this fishy fertilizer has enriched the ecosystem on that side, and that spruces there grow faster.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/nature/articles?type=research-highlight

Reference: Ecology paper 

FEATURES & OPINION

Japanese priest Sadamaru Okano stands beneath a Geiger counter that sends radiation readings to the Safecast project. (Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty) 

How citizen science is transforming research 

Citizen science — active public involvement in scientific research — is growing bigger and more ambitious. Beyond monitoring pollution and snapping pictures of flora and fauna, people are building Geiger counters to assess radiation levels, photographing stagnant water to help document the spread of mosquito-borne disease and taking videos of water flow to calibrate flood models. But to gain legitimacy, many expect that the field will have to overcome lingering concerns about the reliability of its measurements and its usefulness in research.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/latest-news

Look to Africa to advance AI 

Next month, Google will open an artificial-intelligence research lab in Accra — the first of its kind on the African continent, says its co-founder and head Moustapha Cisse. He argues that if AI is to improve lives and reduce inequalities, we must build expertise in Africa; most AI experts are based in North America, Europe and Asia.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/nature/articles?type=world-view

Lessons from a huge retractions database 

The website Retraction Watch has launched a painstakingly collated, searchable database of more than 18,000 research-paper retractions. They and Science magazine have crunched the numbers on the key trends to see what lessons we can learn, including which countries and researchers do worst in retraction rankings.

Retraction Watch & Science

Reference: Retractions database & user guide 

A post-truth philosopher’s defence of science 

French philosopher Bruno Latour has spent decades deconstructing the ways in which scientists claim their authority. In our post-truth world, it’s become clearer that, as Latour has argued, whether or not statements are believed depends much less on their veracity than on who makes them, and from which institutions they emerge. Can Latour’s thinking help science to regain authority today?

New York Times

SCIENTIFIC LIFE

Science in Colombia: on the cusp of change 

As Colombia emerges from a half-century of civil war, scientists are hoping that research will find support in the country’s post-conflict economy. There are deep-rooted problems, but with a proposal to create a science ministry and a new president’s pledge to restructure science administration, researchers have reasons to be optimistic.

Nature | Read more at nature.com/nature/articles?type=spotlight

Image of the week

 

Jeremy Harbeck/NASA

This bizarrely -rectangular iceberg was spotted during an Operation IceBridge October flight over the northern Antarctic Peninsula. 

BOOKS & ARTS

To paint Ophelia (1851–52), John Millais spent months observing plants on the banks of the Hogsmill River in Surrey, UK. (Tate Images) 

The Pre-Raphaelite rebels of art and science 

The Pre-Raphaelites, a group of nineteenth-century British artists, have a reputation for painting romanticized fantasy worlds. But they also took their lead from Victorian science, harnessing empirical methods to create their works and calling for art to model itself on science, as John Holmes explains.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/books-culture

Ancient cities rescued from rubble 

An exhibition at the Arab World Institute in Paris digitally reconstructs monuments destroyed by war in Iraq, Syria and Libya. Nature reviewer Laura Spinney turns virtual tourist at a show that aims to explain how digital technologies are redefining rescue archaeology and contributing to the preservation of our past.

Nature | Read this article at nature.com/books-culture

Infographic of the week

 

This newsletter is always evolving — tell us what you think! Please send your feedback to briefing@nature.com.

Thanks for reading!

Flora Graham, senior editor, Nature Briefing 

Go to go.nature.com/wechat to get Nature Briefing in your inbox free every weekday or click Read More to read more about these stories.

1.本站遵循行业规范,任何转载的稿件都会明确标注作者和来源; 2.本站的原创文章,请转载时务必注明文章作者和来源,不尊重原创的行为我们将追究责任; 3.作者投稿可能会经我们编辑修改或补充。

相关文章
  • 血小板减少:不出血就不严重?NO!

  • ⊙ 一条百褶裙的 50 种穿法,照着穿美...

  • 金.金.金.碧辉煌!博山堪称五星的超豪华...

  • 平均每年关店100家,莱尔斯丹上半财年亏...

  • 【淘石集市】戈壁神韵,异彩丰呈!@观赏石...

  • 50岚|50岚“奶茶”加盟店如何提升顾客...

  • 杨幂新剧片花已出,这个发型想不被吐槽也难

  • 18斤的书包到底该谁背?孩子独立的3个误...